Chemistry Faculty Research Projects
Chemistry faculty also work closely with research projects in biology
Research in the Teaching of Chemistry and Biology
Chemistry faculty Steve Cessna, Tara Kishbaugh, and Matt Siderhurst, along with Biology faculty Doug Graber Neufeld, Psychology faculty Jeanne Horst, and Education faculty Lori Leaman are funded by a major NSF CCLI grant to promote the enhanced learning through authentic, relevant research experiences across the biology and chemistry curriculum. Through this project, the chemistry, biology, psychology, and educations departments are involved in a unique interdisciplinary project that seeks to promote deeper, more practical learning of higher order cognitive skills (HOCs), the nature of science (NOS), and oral and written scientific communication skills. Full description of project.
Stream Health Assessment
EMU is at the headwaters of the Blacks Run, a stream that runs through Harrisonburg. The Blacks Run is considered to be impaired by the Va Department of Environmental Quality due to over-sedimentation and elevated levels of bacteria. In collaboration with other volunteers in the area, students regularly analyze the health of the stream using a variety of physical, chemical and biological indicators such as temperature, flow, nutrient levels (nitrates, phosphates, and others) and e coli.
Plant Stress Physiology and Cellular Biochemistry
Plants in nature are continuously subject to several environmental insults, including drought, heat, cold, toxic pollution, disease, and insects. While some plants have evolved the ability to specifically combat one or more of these stresses, (as cacti have special abilities to withstand drought), all plants have adaptive ability to tolerate most stresses (to varying degrees). This is achieved at the cellular level by the transcription of specific stress-activated genes.
My research project focuses on the roles of calcium and hydrogen peroxide in activating these stress-activated genetic programs. Students working on this project may have the opportunity to learn several different laboratory techniques including: greenhouse maintenance of unique plants, plant cell culture, luminometry, fluorimetry, fluorescence microscopy, and plant genetic manipulation.
Physical Biochemistry of Serum Albumins
Albumin, the most prominent protein in blood serum, is believed to transport fatty acids, drug compounds, vitamins and toxins through the blood stream. We use fluorescence spectroscopy to determine how well small molecules bind to serum albumin. The small molecules we are currently testing are the B vitamin folic acid, and an herbicide called 2,4-D. These studies have relevance to the fields of nutrition and toxicology.
Insect Chemical Ecology
Chemical signals are among the most used information transfer sources in ecology and they can include pheromones (conspecific signaling), plant-herbivore interactions, and predator-prey interactions. While many of these chemical signals are of basic scientific interest, they are also increasingly important to developing ecologically rational pest control strategies, both as replacements for pesticides against established pests and to help mitigate the increasing threat of invasive species (damage ~$137 billion/annually). My research focuses on arthropod chemical ecology, applying the tools of organic chemistry to ecological interactions. Currently I am collaborating with colleagues in Hawaii on research involving attractants for tephritid fruit flies (direct costs to Hawaiian agriculture ~$15 million/annually, lost markets ~$300 million/annually) and the nettle moth, Darna pallivitta. I am in the process of initiating a research program in which I hope to include undergraduates with interests in chemical analysis and synthesis, and students with interests in ecology and/or organismal biology.